Scientific Design of Exhaust and Intake Systems
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Index
silencers, 120
design, 122
tailpipe size, 124
Accelerator pumps, 188
Airintake length, 204
Amplitude of waves, 44, 204
Antibackfire valve, 258
Antinodes, 54
Area, conversion factors, 264
cross sectional of tube, 263
Aspiration, equal interval, 186
Atmospheric pollution, 246
U.S. standards, 248
Auto extraction of residuals, 75
type silencers, 125, 128
Baffle silencer experiments, 125
effect of different perforations, 138
Balance pipe, 216
Blowing down, 17
Bristol induction system, 218
Brooklands silencer, 119
Bypass silencer, 168
Carbon monoxide formation, 250
Carburation, effect on exhaust emissions, 248
Carburetter Zenith Stromberg CDSE, 253
Catalytic converters, 260
Cathoderay tube, use for electronic indicators, 73
Charge mixing, 15
Chrysler raminduction, 219
Clean air package, 252
Collector cone construction, 148
Control of exhaust emissions, 252
Conversion factors, 264
CoventryClimax induction manifold, 217
Crossley scavenging engine, 39
Crosssectional area of tubing, 263
Cylinder filling, 194
Cylinder pressure, 21, 195, 231
Design of absorption silencer, 122
Diffuser, design, 175
megaphone, 174
Dimensions and weights of tubing, 263
Displacement of waves, 44
Dissociation processes, 250
Duplex manifold, Zenith system, 255
thermal, 20
Electronic pressureindicators, 72
Emission control carburetters, 253
systems, 252
Engine speed, effect on exhaust pressure, 90
Exhaust box construction, 144 boxes, 119
emission control, 252
measurement, 252 gas composition, 251
reverse flow, 27
heated induction manifold, 190
manifold design, 16, 26
mountings, 146
pipe length, 88
pipes stepped, 96, 168
pollution, 246
U.S. standards, 248
ports siamesed, 102
pressure, 75
along a pipe, 92
curves, measurement, 85
theoretical, 80
effect of engine speed, 90
in long pipes, 94, 162
primary pipe diameter, 142
layout, 144
length, 141
recirculation, 259
residuals, 15, 19, 21
system, effect on power output, 35
Exhaust systems for racing, 173
V8 engines, 180
six cylinder engines, 112, 149
with silencer, design, 140
Expansion chambers misnamed, 119
Fishtail silencers, 119, 128
Flow characteristics of gas, 25
experiments on silencers, 33
friction in pipes, 38
in single carburetter manifolds, 201
reversal of exhaust gas, 27
through inlet valve, 194
Ford V8 racing exhaust system, 180
Frequency of wave, 44, 202
Friction in pipes, 38
Fuel injection, 205
experiments on silencers, 33
friction in pipes, 38
in single carburetter manifolds, 201
reversal, 27
speed through exhaust ports, 78
through inlet valve, 194
speed calculations, 265
velocity increase in long branches, 30
Gulp valves, 258
motion simple, 44
Harmonics, 59
Heating induction manifold, 190, 202, 214
Hydrocarbons unburned, 248
Imperial standard wire gauge, 263
Independence exhaust system, four cylinder engine, 141
six cylinder engine, 149
Indicator, electronic, 72
valve, multipoint, 62
single point, 65
Induction manifold heating, 190, 202
pressure, 20, 198
process theory, 237
ram, Chrysler, 219
ramming technique, 199, 202, 215, 219
system design, 183, 208, 221
twin carburetters, 210, 213, 216
four cylinder, 184, 209
six cylinder, 187
tract conditions, 188
length, 204, 218, 221
Injection of fuel, 205
Inlet valve gas flow, 194
tuning, 24, 195, 239
Intake length, 204
temperature, 22
Interference, application to four cylinders, 110
six cylinders, 115
between exhausting cylinders, 104
branch on siamesed exhaust port, 153
effect on parallel twin, 115
elimination, 29 general application, 107
in sound waves, 50
silencers, 133
manifold details, 191
Long branch exhaust pipes, 30
Los Angeles pollution problems, 246
design, exhaust, 26
inlet, 208
heating, inlet, 190, 202
pressures, inlet, 198
reactors, 259
Manometer tube indicators, 60
Megaphone diffusers, 174
design, 175
Mixture quality, 188
Morrison indicator, 62
silencer construction, 129
Motor cycle engines, silencing, 125
racing exhaust systems, 174
Mounting the exhaust system, 146
Multicylinder manifolds, 97
Multiple chokes, 221
Multipoint indicator valve, 62
control, 258
Nodes and antinodes, 54
Organ pipes, 57
theory, 82
Oscilloscope, use for electronic indicator, 73
Oval interference silencer, 135
Overlapping of valves, 17
Oxides of nitrogen, 250
control, 258
Penetration of absorption material, 137
Petrol injection, 205
Phase and path of sound waves, 48
Pipe bore, effect on pressure, 90
friction, 38
length calculations, multiple pipes, 100
single pipes, 82
effect on pressure, 90
variations, 88 materials available, 143
Pipes, organ, 57
Pollution, contribution of motor vehicles, 247
from gasoline engines, 246
standards, U.S., 248
Power output, effect of systems, 35
Pressure conversion factors, 264
curves, measured for exhaust, 85
theoretical for exhaust, 80
cycle, 21
cylinder, 21
drop in stepped pipe, 94
Pressure effect of pipe length, 90
waves 49
on velocity of sound, 53
induction manifold, 20, 198
of exhaust gas along a pipe, 92
in long pipes, 94, 162
Primary pipe diameter, 142
layout, 144
length, 141
Progressive and stationary waves, 54
Pulsations in gas, 75
induction systems, 221
Raminduction, Chrysler, 219
Ramming technique, 199, 202, 215, 219
Reactor manifolds, 259
Recirculation of exhaust, 259
Reflected sound waves, 54
Residual gases, 15, 19, 21
Resistance to flow, use of, 115
Resonance, 59, 92
Reverse flow, silencing effect, 129
through inlet valve, 24
Siamesed exhaust ports, 102, 149
Silencer, absorption, 120
design, 122
backpressure type, 125, 128
Brooklands, 119
fishtail, 119, 128
interference, 133
types, 38
Silencing, 117
effect of baffle perforations, 138
restricted outlet, 120
motorcycle engines, 125
Simple harmonic motion, 44
Sine waves, 48
Single point indicator valve, 65
Six cylinder engines, exhaust system, 112, 149
Sound, basic theory, 43
effect of temperature and pressure on velocity, 53
propagation, 45
velocity, 52
waves, 44
Sound waves, effect of viscous drag, 118
interference, 50
phase and path, 48
reflected, 54
Speed of gas through exhaust ports, 78
waves, 84
Stationary and progressive waves, 54
Stepped exhaust pipes, 96, 168
Straightthrough racing systems, 173
Stub exhausts on racing engines, 173
Supercharging, 17
Surfacetovolume ratio, 248
Tapered exhaust pipes, racing engines, 174
Temperature compensation of mixture, 255
conversion factors, 264
effect on velocity of sound, 53
intake, 22
operating cycle, 21
Thermal efficiency, 20
Timing, valve, 17, 198, 211, 223, 244
for supercharging, 18
Torque, increase from volumetric efficiency, 36
variation on six cylinder engine, 113
Toyota emission control system, 257
Triumph engine, induction system, 209
performance comparison, 211
Twincarburetter induction system, 210, 213, 216
cylinder engine exhaust system, 114
U.S. Federal emission legislation, 248
Utube manometers, 60
induction system, 219
Valve opening inlet, 24
overlap, 17, 198
size, 242
timing, 17, 198, 211, 223, 244
with blower, 18
Vauxhall engine, manifold design, 213
performance comparison, 214
Velocity conversion factors, 264
of sound, 52
effect of temperature and pressure, 53
waves, 48
particle, 46, 56
Viscous drag, effect on sound waves, 118
in megaphones, 178
Volume conversion factors, 264
of exhaust boxes calculation, 264
Volumetric efficiency, loss of, 16, 37, 202
Wave, effect on cylinder filling, 196
pressure, 49
frequency, 44, 202
Wavelength, 48
Wave motion theory, 44
progressive and stationary, 54
propagation of sound, 45
theory, 76
sine, 48
speed, 84
velocity, 48
Weights of tubing, 263
Wire gauge, Imperial standard, 263
Stromberg carburetter, 253
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Absorption, material, penetration, 137silencers, 120
design, 122
tailpipe size, 124
Accelerator pumps, 188
Airintake length, 204
Amplitude of waves, 44, 204
Antibackfire valve, 258
Antinodes, 54
Area, conversion factors, 264
cross sectional of tube, 263
Aspiration, equal interval, 186
Atmospheric pollution, 246
U.S. standards, 248
Auto extraction of residuals, 75
B
Back pressure, 19, 31type silencers, 125, 128
Baffle silencer experiments, 125
effect of different perforations, 138
Balance pipe, 216
Blowing down, 17
Bristol induction system, 218
Brooklands silencer, 119
Bypass silencer, 168
C
Californian emission control legislation, 247Carbon monoxide formation, 250
Carburation, effect on exhaust emissions, 248
Carburetter Zenith Stromberg CDSE, 253
Catalytic converters, 260
Cathoderay tube, use for electronic indicators, 73
Charge mixing, 15
Chrysler raminduction, 219
Clean air package, 252
Collector cone construction, 148
Control of exhaust emissions, 252
Conversion factors, 264
CoventryClimax induction manifold, 217
Crossley scavenging engine, 39
Crosssectional area of tubing, 263
Cylinder filling, 194
Cylinder pressure, 21, 195, 231
D
Damping effect of megaphones, 178Design of absorption silencer, 122
Diffuser, design, 175
megaphone, 174
Dimensions and weights of tubing, 263
Displacement of waves, 44
Dissociation processes, 250
Duplex manifold, Zenith system, 255
E
Efficiency, loss of volumetric, 16, 37thermal, 20
Electronic pressureindicators, 72
Emission control carburetters, 253
systems, 252
Engine speed, effect on exhaust pressure, 90
Exhaust box construction, 144 boxes, 119
emission control, 252
measurement, 252 gas composition, 251
reverse flow, 27
heated induction manifold, 190
manifold design, 16, 26
mountings, 146
pipe length, 88
pipes stepped, 96, 168
pollution, 246
U.S. standards, 248
ports siamesed, 102
pressure, 75
along a pipe, 92
curves, measurement, 85
theoretical, 80
effect of engine speed, 90
in long pipes, 94, 162
primary pipe diameter, 142
layout, 144
length, 141
recirculation, 259
residuals, 15, 19, 21
system, effect on power output, 35
Exhaust systems for racing, 173
V8 engines, 180
six cylinder engines, 112, 149
with silencer, design, 140
Expansion chambers misnamed, 119
F
Federal emission control, 248Fishtail silencers, 119, 128
Flow characteristics of gas, 25
experiments on silencers, 33
friction in pipes, 38
in single carburetter manifolds, 201
reversal of exhaust gas, 27
through inlet valve, 194
Ford V8 racing exhaust system, 180
Frequency of wave, 44, 202
Friction in pipes, 38
Fuel injection, 205
G
Gas flow characteristics, 25experiments on silencers, 33
friction in pipes, 38
in single carburetter manifolds, 201
reversal, 27
speed through exhaust ports, 78
through inlet valve, 194
speed calculations, 265
velocity increase in long branches, 30
Gulp valves, 258
H
Harmonic induction engine, 96motion simple, 44
Harmonics, 59
Heating induction manifold, 190, 202, 214
Hydrocarbons unburned, 248
I
Ignition timing, effect on emissions, 252Imperial standard wire gauge, 263
Independence exhaust system, four cylinder engine, 141
six cylinder engine, 149
Indicator, electronic, 72
valve, multipoint, 62
single point, 65
Induction manifold heating, 190, 202
pressure, 20, 198
process theory, 237
ram, Chrysler, 219
ramming technique, 199, 202, 215, 219
system design, 183, 208, 221
twin carburetters, 210, 213, 216
four cylinder, 184, 209
six cylinder, 187
tract conditions, 188
length, 204, 218, 221
Injection of fuel, 205
Inlet valve gas flow, 194
tuning, 24, 195, 239
Intake length, 204
temperature, 22
Interference, application to four cylinders, 110
six cylinders, 115
between exhausting cylinders, 104
branch on siamesed exhaust port, 153
effect on parallel twin, 115
elimination, 29 general application, 107
in sound waves, 50
silencers, 133
J
Jaguar induction design, triple carburetter, 219manifold details, 191
K
Kinetic energy scavenge theory, 75L
Length of exhaust pipe, calculation, 82Long branch exhaust pipes, 30
Los Angeles pollution problems, 246
M
Manifold air oxidation, 257design, exhaust, 26
inlet, 208
heating, inlet, 190, 202
pressures, inlet, 198
reactors, 259
Manometer tube indicators, 60
Megaphone diffusers, 174
design, 175
Mixture quality, 188
Morrison indicator, 62
silencer construction, 129
Motor cycle engines, silencing, 125
racing exhaust systems, 174
Mounting the exhaust system, 146
Multicylinder manifolds, 97
Multiple chokes, 221
Multipoint indicator valve, 62
N
Nitrogen oxides, 250control, 258
Nodes and antinodes, 54
O
Operating cycle temperature, 21Organ pipes, 57
theory, 82
Oscilloscope, use for electronic indicator, 73
Oval interference silencer, 135
Overlapping of valves, 17
Oxides of nitrogen, 250
control, 258
P
Particle velocity, 46, 56Penetration of absorption material, 137
Petrol injection, 205
Phase and path of sound waves, 48
Pipe bore, effect on pressure, 90
friction, 38
length calculations, multiple pipes, 100
single pipes, 82
effect on pressure, 90
variations, 88 materials available, 143
Pipes, organ, 57
Pollution, contribution of motor vehicles, 247
from gasoline engines, 246
standards, U.S., 248
Power output, effect of systems, 35
Pressure conversion factors, 264
curves, measured for exhaust, 85
theoretical for exhaust, 80
cycle, 21
cylinder, 21
drop in stepped pipe, 94
Pressure effect of pipe length, 90
waves 49
on velocity of sound, 53
induction manifold, 20, 198
of exhaust gas along a pipe, 92
in long pipes, 94, 162
Primary pipe diameter, 142
layout, 144
length, 141
Progressive and stationary waves, 54
Pulsations in gas, 75
R
Racing exhaust systems, 173induction systems, 221
Raminduction, Chrysler, 219
Ramming technique, 199, 202, 215, 219
Reactor manifolds, 259
Recirculation of exhaust, 259
Reflected sound waves, 54
Residual gases, 15, 19, 21
Resistance to flow, use of, 115
Resonance, 59, 92
Reverse flow, silencing effect, 129
through inlet valve, 24
S
Selfinduction engine, 95Siamesed exhaust ports, 102, 149
Silencer, absorption, 120
design, 122
backpressure type, 125, 128
Brooklands, 119
fishtail, 119, 128
interference, 133
types, 38
Silencing, 117
effect of baffle perforations, 138
restricted outlet, 120
motorcycle engines, 125
Simple harmonic motion, 44
Sine waves, 48
Single point indicator valve, 65
Six cylinder engines, exhaust system, 112, 149
Sound, basic theory, 43
effect of temperature and pressure on velocity, 53
propagation, 45
velocity, 52
waves, 44
Sound waves, effect of viscous drag, 118
interference, 50
phase and path, 48
reflected, 54
Speed of gas through exhaust ports, 78
waves, 84
Stationary and progressive waves, 54
Stepped exhaust pipes, 96, 168
Straightthrough racing systems, 173
Stub exhausts on racing engines, 173
Supercharging, 17
Surfacetovolume ratio, 248
T
Tailpiece size for absorption silencers, 123Tapered exhaust pipes, racing engines, 174
Temperature compensation of mixture, 255
conversion factors, 264
effect on velocity of sound, 53
intake, 22
operating cycle, 21
Thermal efficiency, 20
Timing, valve, 17, 198, 211, 223, 244
for supercharging, 18
Torque, increase from volumetric efficiency, 36
variation on six cylinder engine, 113
Toyota emission control system, 257
Triumph engine, induction system, 209
performance comparison, 211
Twincarburetter induction system, 210, 213, 216
cylinder engine exhaust system, 114
U
Unburned hydrocarbons formation, 248U.S. Federal emission legislation, 248
Utube manometers, 60
V
V8 engine exhaust systems, 180induction system, 219
Valve opening inlet, 24
overlap, 17, 198
size, 242
timing, 17, 198, 211, 223, 244
with blower, 18
Vauxhall engine, manifold design, 213
performance comparison, 214
Velocity conversion factors, 264
of sound, 52
effect of temperature and pressure, 53
waves, 48
particle, 46, 56
Viscous drag, effect on sound waves, 118
in megaphones, 178
Volume conversion factors, 264
of exhaust boxes calculation, 264
Volumetric efficiency, loss of, 16, 37, 202
W
Water heated manifold, 190,214Wave, effect on cylinder filling, 196
pressure, 49
frequency, 44, 202
Wavelength, 48
Wave motion theory, 44
progressive and stationary, 54
propagation of sound, 45
theory, 76
sine, 48
speed, 84
velocity, 48
Weights of tubing, 263
Wire gauge, Imperial standard, 263
Z
Zenith Duplex system, 255Stromberg carburetter, 253