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Supercharged!

Supercharged index:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Absolute pressure, 28-29. See also Equivalent compression ratio (ECR)
Absolute temperature, 30-31, 34
maximum prior to knock (1075), 37-38, 41-42
in temperature-gain formula (See Temperature-gain
formula)
Acceleration, 9
Adiabatic loss/efficiency, 33, 203
centrifugal superchargers, 83
Roots superchargers, 60-61
twin-screw superchargers, 101
Air filters, 71, 181-183
example, BMW Z3, 292-294
flow loss, testing, 242-243, 293-294
inlet temperature, testing, 242
Air tubes. See Tubes
Air velocity calculation, throttle body, 123-124, 138-139
Airflow
air filter flow loss, 242-243, 293-294
drive power formula, 60, 83, 101, 203, 272
electronic fuel injection (EFI) and, 151
intercooler, 106-107,
109-114, 123-124 (See also Internal flow area, inter cooler)
rate (See Airflow rate)
throttle flow loss, 138,
243-244, 294
Airflow meter
air venting, centrifugal
supercharger, 71-72
electronic fuel injection
systems used with, 72
positioning of, 147-148
Airflow rate, 27-28
altitude, correcting for, 28
under boost, 28
centrifugal superchargers, 73, 79-80
compressor flow maps, 73-74, 76, 81-82
engine without supercharger, 27-28
Roots superchargers, 58
twin-screw superchargers, 99
Air/fuel ratio, 160, 249-251
correct ratio, need for, 170
detonation, cause of, 175
electronic fuel injection, 145, 169-170
exhaust gas temperature gauge, 254
fuel pressure calculation, 156
supercharger kit, 15, 314
water injector, use of, 135
Air/fuel ratio meter, 168, 241, 250, 252
Air-to-air intercoolers, 108-116, 135
Air-to-water intercoolers, 108, 113, 128-131, 135
Altitude, correcting air flow
calculations for, 28
Aluminum
block, 256
con rods, 256
cylinder heads, 229, 230, 256
for mounting supercharger, 193-195
pistons, 235-236
rotors, 260
Ambient air (through air filter), 242
Ambient drag coefficient,
116-117, 119
Ambient heat, effect on
detonation of, 176
Ambient temperature
compressor inlet temperature, 244
in front of intercooler, 246
intercooler at, 106
for power estimation, 34
temperature gain added to, 31
in temperature-gain formula, 38-39, 41
Antisurge valve, 71-72
Atmospheric pressure, 28-29. See also Equivalent compression ratio (ECR)
Automotive data logger, 251-252
Autorotor twin-screw super chargers, 95, 270, 271, 280, 281, 283

B

Bar, pressure measured in, 29
Barometric pressure (BARO) sensor, 147
Bearings, 238, 261
Belts, 202. See also Pulleys
centrifugal superchargers, 65, 67, 71, 83-84
disassembly, 306-307
duty, 204
efficiency, 203
installation, 309-310
noise, 205
orbiting, 206-207
ribbed, 205
tension, 71, 206, 310
toothed, 65, 205
types, 204-205
Belt load, 203, 214-215
centrifugal superchargers,
83-84
example, BMW Z3, 273-274, 282
Mustang drag racer, 257
Roots superchargers, 61-62
twin-screw superchargers, 102
Belt loss/efficiency, 33, 203
centrifugal superchargers, 83
Roots superchargers, 60-61
twin-screw superchargers, 101
Belt velocity, 214-215
centrifugal superchargers, 84
Roots superchargers, 61-62
twin-screw superchargers, 102
Blowers, 5-6. See also Roots superchargers
Blown engine, 37
Blowoff valve, 71
BMW Z3
design of supercharger system for, 265-280
implementing supercharger design for, 281-297
Bonneville cars
centrifugal superchargers, 76
one-shot intercooler, 133
Roots superchargers, 46
turbulator density, 116
Boost (boost pressure), 10, 17, 85. See also Low-speed boost; Torque
above atmospheric, 60
balance of heat and, 37-39
centrifugal superchargers, 69- 70, 77, 79, 83
compressor outlet pressure, 244
drive power formula, 60, 83, 101
fuel pressure regulator, boost- pressure-powered, 155-156, 165, 276-278
gauges for, 19, 248, 252
intercooler, effect of, 105, 106, 109, 134
kit, rated boost of, 11
Miller cycle operation, 94-95
piston choice and, 236
Roots superchargers, 53-54, 60
temperature gain formula,
38-39, 41-42
thermal controls and, 16
timing of, 35
twin-screw superchargers, 89, 96, 98-99, 101
Boost threshold, 8-9
Bore
area of, 25-26, 141
concentric, round shape of, 230
Bosch flapper-door style
flowmeter, 154-155
Braces, manifold/supercharger, 308
Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), 7, 25-27
Brake specific fuel consumption (BFSC), 160, 168
Bypass valves
centrifugal superchargers, 71-72
example, BMW Z3, 292
Roots superchargers, 48-49, 51
twin-screw superchargers, 91-92

C

Cables
disassembly, 304
installation, 312
Camshaft, 238, 240
CARB exemption order status, 16, 266
Carbureted superchargers, 104, 171
Carryback volume, 48, 52
Centrifugal superchargers, 2, 3, 5-6, 65-85, 266, 281
advantages, 67-68
belts, 65, 71, 83-84
boost vs. engine rpm, graph of, 69-70
bypass valve, 71-72
camshafts for, 238
characteristics, 8
compressor flow maps, 73-74, 81-82
construction, 65-67
disadvantages, 70-71
drive power, 68, 83
future development in
industry, 259, 261
intake charge temperature, 73
intake manifold, need for new, 137
intercooler, 68, 78, 84
internal compression ratio,
4-6
low-speed boost, 69-70
lubrication, 73
mounting, 85, 190
Mustang drag racer, 257
noise, 70-71
packaging, 67
peak efficiency, 75-76, 80
planetary gear assembly, high speeds from, 76
pulleys, 69, 71, 83
redline airflow, 75
electing, 35, 73-76
size, 9, 67, 75-82
surge, 68, 71-73
temperature gain formula,
39-43
thermal efficiency, 73-75, 246, 261
throttle flow loss, 243
throttle placement, 67-68, 139
torque curve, 4
venting air from, 71
volumetric efficiency, 31-32, 76-77
Chamber. See Combustion chamber
Charge cooling. See Intercoolers
Charge-air heat exchanger,
129-130
Chassis dynamometer. See Dynamometer
Clamps, intercooler hose,
126-127
Clamp-up, head, 232-235
Clearance volume
to calculate compression ratio, 226-227
Roots superchargers, 48, 49
Combustion chamber. See also Knock (detonation)
chamber-pressure check on cranking the engine,
220-221
detailing of chamber, 229
direct calculation of
temperature in, 40
electronic ignition retard, 175
events in, 173-179
fuels, 177-178
ignition timing, 175
knock sensor, 176-177
spark plugs, 173-175
temperature gain (See Temperature-gain formula)
voltage, 173
Combustion chamber seal, checking, 220-224
compression check, 220-221
electronic check, 224
leakdown check, 221-224
Compression check, combustion chamber seal, 220-221
Compression ratio (CR), 224. See also Equivalent
compression ratio (ECR); Pressure ratio
balance of heat and, 37-42
calculating, 226-227
changing, 227-228
internal, diffuser, 67
latent heat of vaporization and, 160
measuring, 225
Miller cycle and, 94
Mustang drag racer, 257
Roots superchargers, 58, 260
temperature-gain formula,
40-41
Top Fuel car, 256
Compressors (air pump). See also Pressure ratio
density ratio (See Density ratio)
inlet temperature, testing, 244
outlet temperature and
pressure, testing, 244, 294
size, 9 (See also Size of
superchargers, calculating)
Compressors (superchargers),
5-6. See also Centrifugal superchargers; Twin-screw superchargers
Compressor efficiency (Ec),
29-30, 43, 245-246, 294-295
centrifugal superchargers, 67,
73-75, 77, 261
Roots superchargers, 52-56, 260
twin-screw superchargers,
88-89, 97, 294-295
Compressor flow maps, 73-74, 81-82
Compressor surge
centrifugal superchargers, 68, 71-73
Roots superchargers, 48
surge line, 73
Con rods, 238
bearing shell, 37
bolts for, 238
changing to lower
compression ratio, 227
inertial load, 22
power loads, 23-24
Top Fuel car, 256
Connections
EFI system hose connections, 124
Idle Air Control (IAC) valve connector, 305, 311
intercooler, 124-127
Coolant, intercooler, 131
Coolant jacket, bearing
assemblies, 261
Coolant sealing, head gasket, 233
Coolant temperature sensor. See Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor
Cooling system, 239-240, 306
Mustang drag racer, 258
thermal load, effect of, 35
Corrosion protection, 199
Crank bore. See Bore
Crankcase pressure gauge, 254
Cranking-pressure check,
220-221
Crankshaft
supercharger, effect of, 238
Top Fuel car, 256
Crankshaft position (CKP)
sensor, 148
Crankshaft pulley diameter
centrifugal superchargers, 83
example, BMW Z3, 282
Roots superchargers, 61
twin-screw superchargers, 102
Cubic feet per minute
airflow rate, 27-28
converting to pounds per minute, 28
Cylinder block, preparation of, 230-232
Cylinder bore. See Bore
Cylinder heads, 240. See also Head gaskets
clamp-up, improving,
232-235
preparation of, 228-230
studs, use of, 233-235
Top Fuel car, 256
torqueing of head fasteners, 235

D

Data logger, 251-252
Deck, cylinder block, 230
Delta P, 145
Density ratio, 29-31, 34
centrifugal superchargers,
76-78
Roots superchargers, 54-56
twin-screw superchargers,
96-99
Design of system, for BMW Z3, 265-280
Detonation. See Knock
(detonation)
Diagnostic plug
disassembly, 305
installation, 312
Disassembly, 302-307
Displacement volume, 226
Drag racing, 255-263
centrifugal superchargers for, 76
one-shot intercooler for, 133
replacement manifolds, 142
throttle bodies, 139
Top Fuel, 46, 255-256
Drive belts. See Belts
Drive mechanisms, 201-217. See also Belts; Drive power; Pulleys
Drive power. See also Belts; Pulleys
BMW Z3 example, 271-273, 285
centrifugal superchargers, 68, 83
formula, 60-61, 83, 101, 203
Roots superchargers, 59-61
twin-screw superchargers, 96, 100-101
Drive power loss/efficiency, 33, 34
centrifugal superchargers, 83
Roots superchargers, 60-61
twin-screw superchargers, 101
Driveability, 2-3, 35
low-speed, 138, 147
throttle body, effect of, 138
Drivetrain
components, warranty voided for, 18-19
effect of supercharger on, 85
Ducts, intercooler, 118-119
Durability, 261-262
Duty cycle, 149
Dynamometer, 150, 168, 299-300, 313
Dyno graphs, 17

E

Eaton supercharger, 45-46
drive power, 59-60
injector location, 138
intercooler, 62
mounting, 63
noise, 51, 260
thermal efficiency, 55
Economy. See Efficient use of fuel
ECU, 145, 147, 148, 151, 153, 154, 262
aftermarket, 155, 157-158, 166-170
data logger, 251-252
reprogramming, 276, 278
Efficient use of fuel, 3, 7
compression ratio and, 35
Roots superchargers, 63
Electronic fuel injection (EFI), 145-171, 262. See also Pulse duration
    aftermarket systems, 155, 157-158, 166-170
    airflow meter used with, 72
    auxiliary injectors, 157-159, 276, 278
    changes, need for, 171
    electronic check, 224
    fuel flow through injector, 151-152
    fuel line size, 166
    fuel pressure, increasing,
    155-156
    fuel pressure regulator, 155-156, 165, 276-278
    fuel pump, 162-165
    fuel rail size, 165-166
    fuel tank pickup, 166
    hose connections, failure of, 124
    mass flow, 147
    modifying stock systems,
    151-159
    nozzle size, increasing,
    154-155, 276, 278
    number of injectors,
    increasing, 157, 276
    principle of, 145-149
    pulse signal interceptor,
    153-154
    sensors, 145-149, 251-252
    sequential vs. nonsequential, 150-151
    size of injectors, 149-151, 160-161, 168
    speed-density systems, 68, 148
    staged injectors, 158-159
    testing, 161-162
    throttle bodies, 140
    tuning, 168-170

Electronic ignition retard, 175
Emissions, 3, 16. See also Exhaust system
CARB exemption order
status, 16, 266
Roots superchargers, 54
End caps, intercooler, 121-123
End-gas temperature, 27
Engine
age of, 219-220
balancing the assembly, 238
power (See Power)
preparation of, 219-240,
299-300
testing (See Testing of system)
thermal load, effect on
components of, 35
wear and maintenance, 63
Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor, 147, 153
EPA exemption order status, 16
Equivalent compression ratio (ECR), 27-29
Evaporative gas intercoolers, 133-134
Exhaust gas temperature gauge, 254
Exhaust system. See also Oxygen sensor (O2S)
back pressure, 248-249,
295-296
basic tube size, 184-185
example, BMW Z3, 295-296
fasteners and gaskets, 187
flanges, 187
front-wheel-drive cars, 188
hangers, 186-187
joints, 188
materials and finishes, 186, 188
muffler styles, sizes and
number, 185-186
tailpipe tips, 187
Expansion ratio, Miller cycle, 94

F

Fasteners
cylinder head fasteners, 235
exhaust system, 187
mounting, selection of
fasteners for, 197-199
pulley fasteners, strength of, 216
F-CON computer, 154
Fixed displacement
superchargers, 2, 3. See also Roots superchargers; Twin- screw superchargers
durability, 261-262
future development in
industry, 259-261
torque curve, 4
volumetric efficiency, 31
Flat out, engine redline speed, 84
Flowmeter. See Airflow meter
Front cover, disassembly, 306
Frontal area, intercooler, 115-116
Front-wheel-drive cars, exhaust system, 188
Fuel, 177-178. See also Air/fuel ratio
heat benefits of, 160
octane rating, 26, 178
Fuel enrichment, 171
Fuel injectors. See also Electronic fuel injection (EFI)
auxiliary, 157-159, 276, 278
fuel flow through injector, 151-152
location, 138
manifold plenum, 144
manifold runner design, 143
number of, increasing, 157, 276
peak-and-hold, 161-162
saturated, 161-162
secondary (upstream),
138-139
size, 149-151, 160-161, 168
staged, 158-159
standard, 139
testing, 161-162
Fuel line size, 166
Fuel pressure, 145. See also Electronic fuel injection (EFI)
fuel pump flow vs., 162
increasing, 276-277
Fuel pressure gauge, 254
Fuel pressure regulator, 165
boost-pressure-powered
(rising-rate), 155-156, 165, 276-278
Fuel pump, 162-165, 254, 277
flow ratings, 163-164, 277
fuel pressure vs., 162
one or two pumps, 164
parallel, 165
series, 164-165
testing, 277
Fuel rail size, 165-166
Fuel supply system, 162-166
increasing fuel flow, BMW Z3 example, 276-278
in supercharger kit, 19
Fuel tank pickup, 166

G

Gas constant, 38

H

Head gaskets, 240
changing to lower
compression ratio, 227
detonation and, 230, 232
examining failures, 232-233
head surfaces, flatness of, 229
improvement, 230-232
Head studs, 233-235
Heat. See also Temperature
balance of, 37-43
compression ratio and, 26-27, 29-30, 224
at cruise, 89
detonation and, 176
fuel, heat benefits of, 160
at idle, 89
made by supercharger,
formula for, 38-39, 41-42 (See also Temperature-gain formula)
pistons, effect on, 235
power lost as heat (adiabatic loss), 33
Roots superchargers, 48, 51
temperature relationships,
37-38
Heat transfer area, intercooler, 113, 115, 246
Heated oxygen sensor (HO2S), 148
Horsepower. See Power
Hoses, intercooler, 124-127
Hot-wire flowmeters, 155
Hypereutectic alloys, for pistons, 235-237

I

Idle
electronic fuel injection, 169
fuel pressure regulator, effect of, 165
Idle Air Control (IAC) valve
connector, 305, 311
Idle clamp, 312
Idler pulleys
alignment and distance, 212
bearings, 213
crown, 213
load, 214-215
mounts, 215
position, 211
Roots superchargers, 61
rpm, 213-214
shoulder, 213
temperature, 215
Ignition timing, 175, 313
Inertial loads, 21-22, 35, 260
power loads and, 23-24
rpm increase and, 26, 236
Inlet air pickup, 181
Installation
difficulty of, 199
supercharger kit, 299-214
Instructions, supercharger kit, 16, 300
Intake air temperature (IAT)
sensor, 147
Intake manifolds, 120, 137-144
    disassembly, 306
    example, BMW Z3, 286-289
    injector location, 138
    inlet shape, 137-138
    installation, 307-308
    non-symmetrical, 137
    plenum, 144
    pressure, 248
    ram air, 138
    replacement, 137, 142-143, 281-282, 286-289
    Roots superchargers, 63, 137
    runner length, 143
    symmetrical, 137
    throttle bodies, 138-141
    vacuum, 126

Intake valve, Miller cycle
variation, 94-95
Intercoolers, 9, 31, 105-135, 224, 259, 262. See also Turbulators
    airflow rate, 80, 99
    air-to-air, 108-116, 135
    air-to-water, 62, 108, 113, 128-131, 135
    ambient temperature in front of, 246
    auxiliary fuel injectors,
    location of, 158
    baffles, 121, 122
    balance of heat and, 37-38, 42-43
    BMW Z3 example, 279-280
    calculating need for, 106-107
    centrifugal superchargers, 68, 78, 84
    channels, increasing number of, 113
    charge-air heat exchanger, 129-130
    compressor outlet pressure, measurement of, 244
    coolant, 131
    core, nomenclature of, 110
    core flow direction, 120
    core size, formula for, 114, 279
    core streamlining, 116-117
    core style (plate/extruded), 109, 110, 116-117
    core thickness, 119
    defined, 134
    density ratio formula for, 56, 78-80
    desired airflow rate formula for, 58
    detonation, 176
    double-channel core, 113
    drag, 105, 106, 111, 114, 116-117, 119
    drive power formula for, 57, 59-61, 79, 98-99
    ducts, 118-119
    end-cap design, 121-123
    evaporative gas, 133-134
    example, BMW Z3, 289-290, 295
    front cooler, 131-132
    frontal area, 1150116
    heat transfer area, 113, 115, 246
    hoses and connections,
    124-127
    inlet air pickup, 181
    internal flow area, 109-114, 121
    internal tower, 123
    internal volume, 120
    leaks, 68, 130
    light-weight core, 116
    mounting, 127
    multiple, 128
    Mustang drag racer, 257
    noise, 127, 259
    one-shot, 133
    outlet temperature and
    pressure, 247, 295
    piston choice and, 236
    positioning, 127
    pressure loss, 248
    reservoir, 131
    Roots superchargers, 62
    selecting, 108
    staggered-core, 119, 128
    strength of, 123
    supercharger speed, formula for, 59, 100
    tube sizes and shapes,
    123-124, 280, 282, 290
    twin-screw superchargers, 97
    water pumps, 131
    Intercooler efficiency (Ei), 247-248, 295
    Internal compression ratio,
    4-6. See also Compression ratio
    heat production at idle and cruise, 89
    twin-screw superchargers, 89

Internal flow area, intercooler, 109-114, 121
formula to calculate, 109, 111
Inventory check, 301

K

Kilowatt, converting to
horsepower, 60
Kit. See Supercharger kit
Knock (detonation), 26, 37, 75, 168, 175-176
ambient heat, 176
blown head gaskets and, 230, 232
compression ratio and, 35
exhaust gas back pressure, 176
ignition timing, 175
indicator, 188
intercooler, effect of, 105, 134, 176
kit, detonation controls in, 19
lean air/fuel ratio, 175
octane, 176
pistons, effect on, 235, 237
squish volume and, 227
supercharger kit, 16, 313, 314
water injector, effect of,
134-135
Knock sensor, 176-177

L

Lag, 120
Latent heat of vaporization, 160
Leakage
head gaskets, 232
intercooler, 68, 130
Roots superchargers, 48
Leakdown check, combustion chamber seal, 221-224
Low-speed boost
centrifugal superchargers,
69-70
Roots superchargers, 46, 48
twin-screw superchargers,
89-90
Lubrication
centrifugal superchargers, 73
head fasteners, 235
Roots superchargers, 51, 261
twin-screw superchargers,
92-94, 261, 290-291
Lugs, 197
Lysholm supercharger, 87. See also Twin-screw superchargers

M

Magnusson, Jerry, 299
Manifolds. See also Intake
manifolds
brace, 308
disassembly, 306
installation, 307-308
mating, 229-230
Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, 148, 151, 153
Manifold pressure, 168, 169, 239, 248
Manifold vacuum, 68, 71, 126, 230
Mass air flow (MAF) sensor, 147, 151, 153
Mass flowmeter, 147, 153,
154-155
Maximum Boost (Bell), 1
Mazda Millenia, Miller cycle in, 95, 259
Mechanical efficiency, 30
Miller cycle, 94-95, 259-260
Mounting of supercharger,
189-199
centrifugal superchargers, 190
corrosion protection, 199
design criteria, 190-192
fasteners, 197-199
lug configuration, 197
materials, choice of, 193-197
Roots superchargers, 189-190
twin-screw superchargers, 190
Muffler styles, sizes and number, 185-186
Murillo, Mike, 256-257
Mustang drag racers, 256-258

N

Noise
belt, 205
centrifugal superchargers,
70-71
intercoolers, 127, 259
Roots superchargers, 49-51, 62, 260
twin-screw superchargers, 91, 95, 260
O
Oil canning, 123
Oil coolers, 239-240
Oil drain, twin-screw
supercharger lubrication, 93-94
Oil feed, twin-screw supercharger lubrication, 92
Orbiting, 206-207
Oscilloscope, 150, 276
Overrev safety devices, 188
Oxygen sensor (O2S), 148, 154
aftermarket, 250
position, 185

P

Peak-and-hold fuel injectors, 161-162
Performance objectives, 8-9, 219-220
centrifugal superchargers, 73
example, BMW Z3, 265-267
Roots superchargers, 52
Physics of power production, 21-35
Ping. See Knock (detonation)
Pistons, 235-238
ceramic coating on top, 237-238
design, 237
detonation, effect of, 235, 237
with dish, to lower compression ratio, 227-228
heat, effect of, 235
heat removal methods, 237-238
inertial load, 21-22
knock and, 37
materials, 235-237
oil spray on bottom, 237
power loads, 22-24
ring lands, thickness of, 237
PLAN equation, 7, 25-26
Plenum, intake manifold, 144
Ports, cleanup of, 229
Pounds per minute
airflow rate, 27-28
cubic feet per minute
converted to, 28
Pounds per square inch (psi), boost. See Boost (boost
pressure)
Power, 8-9. See also Boost (boost pressure); Drive power; Torque
centrifugal superchargers, power peak of, 75-76
converting kilowatts to horse power, 60
desired engine power, formula for, 54-61, 76-83, 96-101
estimating, 34
gains, 25-26
intercooler, power loss due to, 106-107
loads, 22-25, 35
measurement of horsepower, BMW Z3 example,
274-275, 298-299
pressure ratio, determining needed, 29
volumetric efficiency ratio and, 32
Powerdyne blower, 69
Power-steering-pump pulley, 285-286
Pressure gauges, 241, 243, 254

Pressure ratio, 28-29, 34. See also Compression ratio; Density ratio; Equivalent compression ratio (ECR)
centrifugal superchargers,
69- 70, 73-74, 76-77, 81-82
compressor flow maps, 73-74, 82-82
compressor outlet pressure, measurement of, 244
compressor rpm and, 69-70
ideal, 35
intercooler, with/without, 106-107
raising, 26
Roots superchargers, 54-59
in temperature-gain
formula, 38-39
twin-screw superchargers,
96-99
volumetric efficiency and,
31-32
Pressure-feeding, twin-screw supercharger lubrication,
92-93
PSI company, 95
Pulleys. See also Idler pulleys
bending moment, 216
diameter, 210
example, BMW Z3, 284-286
extension, 216, 284
fastener strength, 216
materials, 210-211
Mustang drag racer, 257
orbiting, 206-207
power-steering-pump,
285-286
pulley-to-crankshaft joint, 217
small drive pulley, belt wrap
for, 71
specifications, 209-210
temperature, 210

Pulley ratio, 61, 207-209
centrifugal superchargers, 69, 83
example, BMW Z3, 273, 282
Roots superchargers, 61
twin-screw superchargers, 101-102
Pulse duration, 145, 149-153, 168, 169
increasing, 152-153, 276, 278
measuring, 150
Pulse duration meter, 150, 276
Pulse signal interceptor, 153-154
Putts
excessive low-speed boost and, 90
number per minute, 25-26

Q

Quality control, supercharger kit, 16

R

Radiators, 239-240
disassembly, 306
Mustang drag racer, 258
Ram air, intake manifold, 138
Real temperature gain/psi of boost, 39, 43, 245
Revs. See Rpms
Rising-rate fuel pressure
regulator, 155-156, 165, 276-278
Rms (surface roughness
measurement scale), 229
Roots superchargers, 3, 45-63. See also Fixed displacement superchargers
advantages, 48
aftermarket systems, 46
as blowers, 5-6
bypass valve, 48-49, 51
camshafts for, 238
characteristics, 8
compression ratio, 260
construction, 47
disadvantages, 48-51, 54
displacement pumped per
revolution, rating by, 58-59
emissions requirements, 54
engine reconfiguration for, 58
engine wear and maintenance, effect on, 63
future development in
industry, 259-260
heat of, 48, 51
injector location, 138
intake manifold, 63, 137
intercooling, 62
internal compression ratio, 4-5
leakage, 48
low-speed boost, 46, 48
low-speed engine smoothness, 54
lubrication, 51
marketing of, 262
mileage, effect on, 63
Miller cycle, 94
mounting, 63, 189-190
noise, 49-51, 62, 260
performance objectives, 52
redline rpm, 54
selecting, 52-54
size, 9, 46, 54-59
speed, formula for, 59
temperature gain formula, 39-43
thermal efficiency, 246, 260
throttle flow loss, 243
throttle placement, 49, 126
Top Fuel car, 46, 256
torque curve, 4
volumetric efficiency, 54, 63
Rpms. See also Low-speed boost
airflow rate, calculating, 27
boost vs. engine rpm,
centrifugal supercharger, 69-70
cylinder block strength and rev limit, 230
fuel injector, increase in rpm range for, 149-153
idler pulley, 213-214
peak efficiency, centrifugal supercharger, 80
piston choice and rev increase, 236
in power formula, 26
redline, 54, 58, 59, 61, 69, 84, 101, 149-150, 152-153, 276
Roots superchargers, selecting, 52, 53
stock equipment, use of, 239

S

Safety, installation, 302
Safety devices, 188
Scoops, intercooler, 118
Screw compressor. See
Twin-screw superchargers
Selecting superchargers, 7-11. See also Compressor efficiency (Ec); Size of superchargers, calculating; Volumetric
efficiency
centrifugal superchargers, 35, 73-76
Roots superchargers, 52-54
twin-screw superchargers,
95-102
Size of superchargers, calculating, 244
BMW Z3 example, 267-271
centrifugal superchargers,
75-82
importance of sizing, 104
Roots superchargers, 54-59
twin-screw superchargers,
95-100
Spark plugs, 173-175
Speed, top, 9
Speed-density EFI systems, 68, 148
Sprintex company, 95
Squish volume, 227
SRM company, 87, 95
Staged fuel injectors, 158-159
Staggered-core intercoolers, 119, 128
Stainless steel, for mounting supercharger, 197
Steel
crankshafts, 256
for mounting supercharger, 196-197
Stock power, 54, 56, 76, 78,
96-98
Stroke, length of, 25-26
Supercharged vehicle, acquiring, 13-14
Superchargers. See also Centrifugal superchargers; Fixed displacement
superchargers; Roots
superchargers; Twin-screw superchargers
building your own system,
17-19
cost, 1, 10, 18, 259, 278
defined, 1
design of supercharger system, BMW Z3 example, 265-280
future development in
industry, 258-263
implementation of design, BMW Z3 example, 281-297
logic of supercharging, 7
marketing of, 262-263
materials, 260
objectives, 8-9
positioning, 283-284
selecting (See Selecting
superchargers)
speed, formula for, 59,
99-100
testing (See Testing of system)
as torque multiplier, 85
turbochargers compared, 1-2
types of, 3
Supercharger kit
additional components needed, 19
air/fuel ratio, maintenance of correct, 15
detonation, margin of safety on, 16
emissions regulation, 16
installation, 299-214
instructions, 16, 18
rated boost of, 11
selection of, 15-17, 299
testing, 312-314
thermal controls, 16
warranty, 16, 18-19, 301
Surface roughness measurement scale (rms), 229
Surge. See Compressor surge

T

Tailpipe tips, 187
Temperature. See also Absolute temperature; Ambient
temperature
idler pulley, 215
intercooling for control of (See Intercoolers)
measuring equipment, 241
underhood temperature
distribution, 181
Temperature relationships
(balance of heat), 37-38
Temperature-gain formula,
38-39, 41-42, 245
centrifugal superchargers, 78
compression ratio, 40-41
Roots superchargers, 55-56
twin-screw superchargers,
97-98
Testing of system, 241-254
air filter conditions, 242-243
air/fuel ratio, 249-250
automotive data logger,
251-252
combustion chamber seal, checking, 220-224
compressor conditions,
244-246
equipment and tools, 241, 251-254
example, BMW Z3, 293
exhaust back pressure,
248-249
intake manifold pressure, 248
intercooler conditions,
246-248
supercharger kit installation, 312-314
throttle flow loss, 243-244
Thermal controls, supercharger kit, 16
Thermal efficiency. See Compressor efficiency (Ec); Intercooler efficiency (Ei)
Thermal loads, 35, 43. See also Heat
Throttle bodies, 139-141
airflow meter, positioning, 147-148
disassembly, 304, 305
installation, 311-312
placement, 67-68, 126, 139, 283
progressive, 140
replacement manifolds, 142
throttle bore area, 141
throttle shaft area, 141
throttle size, calculating, 141
Throttle flow loss, 243-244, 294
Throttle position (TP) sensor, 149, 305, 311
Throttle response, twin-screw supercharger, 90
Time, burning more fuel per, 7
Time limit for increased thermal load, 35
Tools
installation, 199, 301-302
testing of system, 241,
251-254
Top Fuel drag racing, 46,
255-256
Torque. See also PLAN equation
low-speed, 8
measurement of, BMW Z3 example, 298-299
Miller cycle operation, 94-95
power load, effect of torque increase on, 24-25
Torque curve, 4
Torque peak, 9
centrifugal superchargers,
75-76, 80
compressor thermal efficiency calculation at, 245
mass-flow EFI systems,
operation of, 147
power load peak and, 23
Toyota Racing Developments kit, installation of, 299-214
Toyota T100V-6, installation of supercharger kit in, 299-214
Transmission, effect of
supercharger on, 85
Tubes
installation, 290, 312
sizes and shapes, 123-124, 280, 282
Turbochargers, 1-2
Turbulators, 110, 111, 113-114, 116
Twin-screw superchargers, 3, 87-104. See also Fixed displacement superchargers
    advantages, 88-90
    belt load, 102
    BMW Z3, use in (See
    BMW Z3)
    bypass valve, 91-92
    camshafts for, 238
    characteristics, 8
    as compressors, 5-6
    construction, 88
    density ratio, 96-97
    disadvantages, 90-91
    drive power, 100-101
    future development in
    industry, 259-261
    heat produced by, 89
    high boost pressure of, 89
    intake manifold, need for new, 137
    internal compression ratio,
    4-6
    low-speed boost, 89-90
    lubrication, 92-94, 290-291
    Miller cycle, 94-95, 259-260
    mounting, 103, 190
    noise, 91, 95, 260
    positioning, 283-284
    pressure ratio, 96-98
    pulley ratio, 101-102
    selecting, 95-102
    size, 9, 95-100
    temperature gain formula,
    39-43
    thermal efficiency, 88-89, 246
    throttle flow loss, 243
    throttle placement, 126, 283
    throttle response, 90
    torque curve, 4
    volumetric efficiency, 89

U

Underhood temperature
distribution, 181

V

Vacuum, manifold. See Manifold vacuum
Vacuum gauges, 241, 242-243, 248, 252
Vacuum hoses, disassembly, 303
Vacuum leak, 311
Vacuum lines
disassembly, 304-306
installation, 312
Vacuum Switch Valve (VSV),
disassembly, 304
Valve lash, 221, 224
Valve springs, 239
Valve timing, Miller cycle
variation, 94-95
Valve train, 240
Valves, 238-239
Vehicle with supercharger, acquiring, 13-14
Voltage, 173
Volumetric efficiency, 30-32, 34, 260
Roots superchargers, 52, 63
twin-screw superchargers, 89
Volumetric efficiency ratio, 32, 34
centrifugal superchargers, 76-77
desired engine power, formula for, 54-56
Roots superchargers, 54-55
twin-screw superchargers, 96-98

W

Warranty, supercharger kit, 16, 18-19, 301
Water injectors, 134, 135
Water pumps, intercooler, 131
Work, 6-7